Q_Properties in a Qt program



  • Hello,

    I still have some issues on this example:

    main.cpp:

    #include <QApplication>
    #include "iconeditor.h"
    
    int main(int argc, char* argv[])
    {
        QApplication app(argc, argv);
    
        IconEditor iconEditor;
        iconEditor.setWindowTitle(QObject::tr("Icon Editor"));
        iconEditor.setIconImage(QImage(":/images/mouse.png"));
        iconEditor.show();
    
        return app.exec();
    }
    

    iconeditor.h:

    #ifndef ICONEDITOR_H
    #define ICONEDITOR_H
    
    #include <QColor>
    #include <QImage>
    #include <QWidget>
    
    class IconEditor : public QWidget
    {
        Q_OBJECT
        Q_PROPERTY(QColor penColor READ penColor WRITE setPenColor)
        Q_PROPERTY(QImage iconImage READ iconImage WRITE setIconImage)
        Q_PROPERTY(int zoomFactor READ zoomFactor WRITE setZoomFactor)
    
    public:
        IconEditor(QWidget *parent = 0);
    
        QColor penColor() const { return curColor; }
        QImage iconImage() const { return image; }
        int zoomFactor() const { return zoom; }
        void setPenColor(const QColor &newColor);
        void setIconImage(const QImage &newImage);
        void setZoomFactor(int newZoom);
    
        QSize sizeHint() const;
    
        ~IconEditor();
    
    protected:
        void mousePressEvent(QMouseEvent *event);
        void mouseMoveEvent(QMouseEvent *event);
        void paintEvent(QPaintEvent *event);
    
    private:
        void setImagePixel(const QPoint &pos, bool opaque);
        QRect pixelRect(int i, int j) const;
    
        QColor curColor;
        QImage image;
        int zoom;
    };
    
    #endif // ICONEDITOR_H
    

    iconeditor.cpp:

    #include <QtWidgets>
    #include "iconeditor.h"
    
    IconEditor::IconEditor(QWidget *parent)
        : QWidget(parent)
    {
        setAttribute(Qt::WA_StaticContents);
        setSizePolicy(QSizePolicy::Minimum, QSizePolicy::Minimum);
    
        curColor = Qt::blue;
        zoom = 8;
    
        image = QImage(16, 16, QImage::Format_ARGB32);
        image.fill(qRgba(0, 0, 0, 0));
    }
    
    //*******************************************************
    
    void IconEditor::setPenColor(const QColor& newColor)
    {
        curColor = newColor;
    }
    
    //**************************************************
    
    void IconEditor::setZoomFactor(int newZoom)
    {
        if (newZoom < 1)
            newZoom = 1;
    
        if (newZoom != zoom) {
            zoom = newZoom;
            update();
            updateGeometry();
        }
    }
    
    //***********************************************************
    
    void IconEditor::setIconImage(const QImage &newImage)
    {
        if (newImage != image) {
            image = newImage.convertToFormat(QImage::Format_ARGB32);
            update();
            updateGeometry();
        }
    }
    
    //********************************************
    
    QSize IconEditor::sizeHint() const
    {
        QSize size = zoom * image.size();
        if (zoom >= 3)
            size += QSize(1, 1);
        return size;
    }
    
    //*******************************************
    
    void IconEditor::paintEvent(QPaintEvent *event)
    {
        QPainter painter(this);
        qDebug() << image.height() << ' ' << image.width() <<endl;
        if(zoom >= 3)
          {
            painter.setPen(palette().foreground().color());
            for(int i = 0; i< image.width(); ++i)
                painter.drawLine(zoom * i, 0, zoom *i, zoom * image.height());
    
            for(int j = 0; j<image.height(); ++j)
                painter.drawLine(0, zoom * j, zoom * image.width(), zoom * j);
          }
    
        for(int i = 0; i<image.width(); ++i)
            for(int j = 0; j < image.height(); ++j)
            {
                QRect rect = pixelRect(i, j);
                  if(!event->region().intersected(rect).isEmpty())
                  {
                     QColor color = QColor::fromRgba(image.pixel(i, j));
                      if(color.alpha() < 255)
                         painter.fillRect(rect, Qt::white);
                      painter.fillRect(rect, color);
                  }
            }
    }
    
    //************************************************
    
    QRect IconEditor::pixelRect(int i, int j) const
    {
        if( zoom >= 3)
            return QRect(zoom * i + 1, zoom * j + 1, zoom-1, zoom-1);
        else
            return QRect(zoom * i, zoom * j, zoom , zoom);
    }
    
    //**************************************************
    
    void IconEditor::mousePressEvent(QMouseEvent *event)
    {
        if(event->button() == Qt::LeftButton)
            setImagePixel(event->pos(), true);
        else if(event->button() == Qt::RightButton)
            setImagePixel(event->pos(), false);
    }
    
    //************************************************
    
    void IconEditor::mouseMoveEvent(QMouseEvent *event)
    {
        if(event->buttons() & Qt::LeftButton)
            setImagePixel(event->pos(), true);
        else if(event->buttons() & Qt::RightButton)
            setImagePixel(event->pos(), false);
    }
    
    //*********************************************************
    
    void IconEditor::setImagePixel(const QPoint &pos, bool opaque)
    {
        int i = pos.x() / zoom;
        int j = pos.y() / zoom;
    
        if(image.rect().contains(i, j)) {
            if(opaque)
                image.setPixel(i, j, penColor().rgba());
            else
                image.setPixel(i, j, qRgba(0 , 0, 0, 0));
        update(pixelRect(i, j));
        }
    }
    
    //***************************************************
    
    IconEditor::~IconEditor() { }
    
    

    The functions below are called only by those three properties:

     QColor penColor() const { return curColor; }
     int zoomFactor() const { return zoom; }
     void setPenColor(const QColor &newColor);
     void setIconImage(const QImage &newImage);
     void setZoomFactor(int newZoom);
    

    But what if we don't use the properties? I meant, whether I use the properties or make them comments, the program works well in both cases. So the question is how or by what instructions/statements are those functions called when we make the properties comments (/* */), please?



  • Hi @tomy

    the Q_PROPERTY macro does some signal slot registration behind the scenes (http://doc.qt.io/qt-5/properties.html) using the real functions and variable definition that you provide yourself: like QColor penColor, QColor penColor(), and void setPenColor(const QColor &color). Without the macro your function definitions still exist, so you can still use them.

    -Michael.



  • in 99% of the cases, Q_PROPERTYs are needed only when using QtQuick (QML) as interface. They are not used afai see in this code. You can delete them.



  • @tomy Q_PROPERTY allows to access properties by their name (which may be unknown at compile time) instead of calling concrete class methods.

    Examples of cases when this may be needed:

    • As @VRonin mentioned, objects exposed to QML
    • Similarly, old application using QtScript, and also 3rd party language bindings may use this
    • In Qt Designer (or version of it embedded into Qt Creator) you can modify values of widget properties via GUI
    • In C++ code there may be a situation when you have access to some object as QObject* or QWidget*, without knowing for sure if it is IconEditor or not. You still can get/set its properties with QObject::property/QObject::setProperty, and if object is of different type but provides same property it will work just as fine as IconEditor [*]
    • Variation of previous item, you can have generic code that traverses object/widget hierarchies from parent to children and accessing their properties. For example, I've once implemented custom style system based on QProperties, for set of custom widgets which did not use QStyle internally

    [*] Though it's better to use abstract interface instead, if possible



  • You can also find code that uses QProperties for serialization of objects



  • Thanks for the answers.
    I used the header file this way and removed all redundant parts:

    #ifndef ICONEDITOR_H
    #define ICONEDITOR_H
    
    #include <QColor>
    #include <QImage>
    #include <QWidget>
    
    class IconEditor : public QWidget
    {
        Q_OBJECT
    
    public:
        IconEditor(QWidget *parent = 0);
    
        QColor penColor() const { return curColor; }
        void setPenColor(const QColor &newColor);
        void setIconImage(const QImage &newImage);
        void setZoomFactor(int newZoom);
    
        QSize sizeHint() const;
        ~IconEditor();
    
    protected:
        void mousePressEvent(QMouseEvent *event);
        void mouseMoveEvent(QMouseEvent *event);
        void paintEvent(QPaintEvent *event);
    
    private:
        void setImagePixel(const QPoint &pos, bool opaque);
        QRect pixelRect(int i, int j) const;
    
        QColor curColor;
        QImage image;
        int zoom;
    };
    
    #endif // ICONEDITOR_H
    

    The code is much more reasonable and works well too.



  • Something strange!

    I even shortened the code more, to this state:

    #ifndef ICONEDITOR_H
    #define ICONEDITOR_H
    
    #include <QColor>
    #include <QImage>
    #include <QWidget>
    
    class IconEditor : public QWidget
    {
        Q_OBJECT
    
    public:
        IconEditor(QWidget *parent = 0);
    
        QColor penColor() const { return curColor; }
        void setIconImage(const QImage &newImage);
    
        QSize sizeHint() const;
        ~IconEditor();
    
    protected:
        void mousePressEvent(QMouseEvent *event);
        void mouseMoveEvent(QMouseEvent *event);
        void paintEvent(QPaintEvent *event);
    
    private:
        void setImagePixel(const QPoint &pos, bool opaque);
        QRect pixelRect(int i, int j) const;
    
        QColor curColor;
        QImage image;
        int zoom;
    };
    
    #endif // ICONEDITOR_H
    

    These are all the code needs to run. But the odd thing here is that why the author expanded the code to the one written in the first post of this thread! (from 35 lines of code to 43 only in the header!)
    I don't understand, do you?



  • Presumably because author intended this class to be more reusable, e.g. like widgets that are part of Qt. Built-in widgets have getters and setters for all their properties, as well as Q_PROPERTY declarations, to not limit you in different usage scenarios. If you are developing widget to be used in specific place of specific project, you can cut off a lot of unneeded stuff and make it simpler.



  • Thank you. I even made it shorter. Not a good policy to me if the author has intended it for a reader who is "learning" new things to be overwhelmed by useless methods wasting time while they don't have any real usage at the given example. If he wanted he could use them all in a more appropriate example.


  • Qt Champions 2017

    @tomy
    Actually, in the very next chapter he uses those properties to integrate as plugin into Designer
    http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1405227&seqNum=3
    So he had a plan with it.



  • Hi,
    So I will deal with those properties on that chapter with the experience I gained from here. Thanks.

    One other question. In prior apps we would use setLayout for showing the output. Here I don't see that tool. What part of the code does this duty please? That is, it brings the window up for the rest of the program.



  • @tomy said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    In prior apps we would use setLayout for showing the output

    Nope, setLayout is used to, unsurprisingly, lay out multiple widgets. This example is a single widget that takes care of painting itself so no need for layouts



  • @VRonin
    We have a window that in main.cpp using the instruction below we set its title to "Icon Editor":
    iconEditor.setWindowTitle(QObject::tr("Icon Editor"));
    Then that window will be used for painting using the paintEvent function.
    I mean, how will that window be up/shown? Using what function/instructions?



  • @tomy said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    how will that window be up/shown?

    @tomy said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    iconEditor.show();

    Qt is more intuitive than you'd think



  • Thank you.



  • On the method void IconEditor::paintEvent(QPaintEvent *event), I think:

    1- QPainter painter(this): Here this is a pointer to a QPaintDevice which is here the widget we are working on.

    2- if(!event->region().intersected(rect).isEmpty()): I toyed with Documentations and read about each type: event, region, intersect, and isEmpty. I know that it compares "two" rectangles for an area to be intersected and looks if such an area exists or not (it's empty). The first rectangle is our rect, what's the other one? Would you please explain this line of code a little more?

    3- QColor color = QColor::fromRgba(image.pixel(i, j)): Here we first take the color of a pixel on our original icon, addressed by coordinates i and j, out, and then convert it to an Rgba format and set it to the variable color.

    4- if(color.alpha() < 255) painter.fillRect(rect, Qt::white);
    painter.fillRect(rect, color);

    If the color obtained that way (above), "isn't" completely dark, we first set a white background, and if it "is", we won't do anything. Then we paint the rect using that color.

    Are all 4 correct please?



    1. correct
    2. from http://doc.qt.io/qt-5/qpaintevent.html#region "Returns the region that needs to be updated." basically if the pixel (image pixel, not display pixel) you are painting is outside the area that needs to be repainted you don't bother painting it
    3. no, pixel already returns an rgb encoded color, you just create a QColor with it. You can actually replace it with QColor color = image.pixelColor(i, j);
    4. correct. The idea is that if it's completely dark it will overwrite the background anyway so might as well not bother painting the background


  • @VRonin
    Thank you.

    from http://doc.qt.io/qt-5/qpaintevent.html#region "Returns the region that needs to be updated." basically if the pixel (image pixel, not display pixel) you are painting is outside the area that needs to be repainted you don't bother painting it

    1- I still haven't got it!
    Where have we any region for updating? I don't think we have any updating on the whole program.
    And, how an image pixel can be outside an area? We used the icon and created a grid according to its size.
    As well as, Where do we have repainting in this application please? Everything seems to be in a rather static mode.

    2- Is QColor color = image.pixelColor(i, j); another style of code only or related to new version of Qt? (Because the book is somewhat outdated)



    1. Take this situation:
      Two windows partially overlapping
      if you now close the notepad, the calculator does not need to repaint everything but just the region that was previously hidden so a pixel that is on the top left section is outside event->region() and we don't repaint it
      Repainting is handled internally by Qt, it will take care of calling paintEvent every time it needs re-painting
    2. http://doc.qt.io/qt-5/qimage.html#pixelColor-1 : "This function was introduced in Qt 5.6."


  • OK, thank you.
    What is the role of intersected(rect).isEmpty() in that instruction, please?
    That part seems to check if there even is any widget (area) for painting! It also seemingly compares some two rectangles!

    All the painting happens based on that line in the code.



  • That's exactly what I'm explaining. event->region() is the area that need to be repainted (the one under the notepad in my previous example). If rect (which is 1 image pixel zoomed) is inside that region then repaint it, otherwise just skip it. You can actually remove that if altogether, it's there just to make the paint faster to avoid repainting regions that did not need repainting



  • Thanks.

    That if-condition is for "the whole" painting I think. I removed the condition and it made the parameter event be left uselessly! I can't accept that condition is useful.

    About another if-condition: if(event->buttons() & Qt::LeftButton) in the mouseMoveEvent. Here it has used a bit-wise and (&) while the operator == will work too.

    Both sides are of the sate type (left, right or middle button). Why a bit-wise operator? (&)

    And how could we convince ourselves that, that operator works correctly for that condition, please?


  • Qt Champions 2017

    Hi
    The bitwise & is used as the information is created that way. (using OR)
    If multiple buttons were pressed, using == would fail even the Qt::LeftButton was actually also pressed.
    So when a valued is created by using OR. the only correct way is to use & to check if that bit/bits is set.



  • @tomy said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    I removed the condition and it made the parameter event be left uselessly!

    It's not uncommon to have useless arguments. There is even a macro Q_UNUSED to suppress warnings regarding useless parameters

    And how could we convince ourselves that, that operator works correctly for that condition, please?

    think of if as "it executes the next block if the argument is not 0. event->buttons() & Qt::LeftButton will return 0 only if the Qt::LeftButton bit is not set



  • Thank you. But I still haven't got it.
    The bitwise operators as their names express work on bits (0 and 1).
    Do you mean that the states event->buttons() and Qt::LeftButton return are actually bits? event->buttons() returns a bit (0 or 1) and Qt::LeftButton also returns a bit (1 or 0). Then that bitwise operator &, operates on the two states and returns the result according to the && rule?


  • Moderators

    @tomy Please check the definition of http://doc.qt.io/qt-5/qt.html#MouseButton-enum, LeftButton has a value of 0x00000001
    It is not a bit it is an integer.
    If you do a bitwise & with for example 0x00000011 you will get 0x00000001 which is not 0 and as such true:

    0x00000011 & 0x00000001 = 0x00000001 // true
    0x00000010 & 0x00000001 = 0x00000000 // false
    

    This has nothing to do with Qt - C/C++ basics.



  • @jsulm

    0x00000011 & 0x00000001 = 0x00000001 // true
    0x00000010 & 0x00000001 = 0x00000000 // false
    

    Thanks.

    What's the criteria to consider it true/false? By the least-valuable bit?
    I implemented the instructions for all three buttons.

    Qt::LeftButton 0x00000001
    Qt::RightButton 0x00000002
    Qt::MidButton 0x00000004

    Yes, they are integers and we will have one of those values if its corresponding button is pressed.
    If we press "any" key (of the mouse) we will have a true value on the left side (event->buttons()). For instance, we press the midbutton. So on the left side we have a value true and on the right we have a value 4:

    true & 4 = 0x00000100 // true or false
    

    Now is it interpreted true or false?



  • Nope, it's not converted to bool. Let's say you pressed both left and right mouse buttons. event->buttons() will return Qt::LeftButton | Qt::RightButton which is 3 as an integer (suppose 32 bits) 00000000000000000000000000000011 in binary. Now you "and" bit by bit with Qt::LeftButton which is 1 as an integer (suppose 32 bits) 00000000000000000000000000000001. The result is 00000000000000000000000000000001 as an integer. now

    @VRonin said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    think of if as "it executes the next block if the argument is not 0

    since it's not 0 if executes the block

    If it's still not clear: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitwise_operation



  • I studied the bit-wise AND of that link.

    Nope, it's not converted to bool.

    Help says: event->buttons(): Returns the button state when the event was generated. The button state is a combination of Qt::LeftButton, Qt::RightButton, Qt::MidButton using the OR operator.
    So by 'OR', it means 'plus' (+), not boolean OR!

    Thanks.


  • Moderators

    @tomy said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    So by 'OR', it means 'plus' (+), not boolean OR!

    It is a bitwise-OR. If you press left and right mouse buttons at the same time, buttons() will return
    Qt::LeftButton | Qt::RightButton == 0x00000001 | 0x00000002 == 0x00000003.

    It is not 'plus' (+). Qt::LeftButton | Qt::LeftButton == 0x00000001 | 0x00000001 == 0x00000001

    @tomy said in Q_Properties in a Qt program:

    About another if-condition: if(event->buttons() & Qt::LeftButton) in the mouseMoveEvent. Here it has used a bit-wise and (&) while the operator == will work too.

    Both sides are of the sate type (left, right or middle button). Why a bit-wise operator? (&)

    No, == can fail if you press two buttons at the same time. As above, if you press the left and right buttons simultaneously, buttons() will return 0x00000003.

    • 0x00000003 == Qt::LeftButton evaluates to false
    • 0x00000003 & Qt::LeftButton evaluates to true

Log in to reply
 

Looks like your connection to Qt Forum was lost, please wait while we try to reconnect.