What is the GUI style called that is commonly used in sci-fi media? Can be implemented by Qt ?
I don't think it's called anything. It's usually a custom creative work styled to match the aesthetics of the production it is used in. They are also not real UIs, just animations with little to none interaction.
The second link you gave though looks like a desktop theme for some window manager.
If you look closer there's nothing rally fancy going on there. Many of these elements are just simple lists, buttons, progress bars etc. It's just a matter of creative styling.
So yeah, certainly doable with Qt. Probably a little easier in QML than widgets because of all the animations (that I'm guessing are there). The 3D parts can be added with OpenGL, which Qt has excellent support for too.
Remember though that these kinds of interfaces are just a flashy pieces for 2sec movie shots or screenshots. Such UI with big, inconsistent, unrecognizable and undiscoverable, flashy elements would be awfully unproductive and just plain bad for a day to day use.